|Anatomy of the Kidney|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Reasons for Procedure
- Urinary/ureteral obstruction
- Rejection of the new kidney
- Urine leakage into the body
- Blood clot
- Damage to blood vessels or nerves
- Damage to nearby organs
- Cancer risk due to prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs
- Pre-existing medical conditions, especially certain heart, lung, and liver diseases
- Autoimmune disease
- Current infection
- HIV infection
- Young age or increased age—of either you or the donor
- Poorly matching tissue between you and the donor
- Prior failed transplant
- Conditions that will likely result in a recurrence of kidney failure in the new kidney
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
- Physical exam
- Review of medications
- Blood tests, including blood chemistries, liver function tests, bleeding profile, and infection testing
- Extensive tissue typing
- Electrocardiogram (EKG)
- Chest x-ray
- Psychological testing and counseling—to help you to be prepared for the transplant
- Continue dialysis as directed by your doctor.
- Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
- Take medications as directed. Do not take over-the-counter medications without checking with your doctor.
- Eat a light meal the night before. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
- Arrange for someone to drive you home. Also, arrange for someone to help you at home.
Description of the Procedure
Immediately After Procedure
- Breathing tube until you can breathe on your own
- IV fluids and medicine
- Bladder catheter to drain urine
How Long Will It Take?
How Much Will It Hurt?
Average Hospital Stay
- Get out of bed the day after surgery.
- Breathe deeply and cough 10-20 times every hour—this will help your lungs work better after surgery.
- Take immunosuppressive drugs—you will need to take these for the rest of your life. These drugs reduce the chance that your body will reject the new kidney.
- Wear compression stockings to reduce the risk of blood clots.
Take medication as advised by your doctor, which may include:
- Steroids to reduce inflammatoin and to prevent rejection
- Diuretics to stimulate kidney function and control blood pressure
- Your new kidney needs to be monitored. Have tests and exams done as directed.
- Weigh yourself daily. Also, measure the amount of fluids you take in and the amount of urine you pass.
- Restrict the amount of salt and protein that you eat.
- If advised by your doctor, avoid alcohol for at least one year.
- Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.
Call Your Doctor
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills
- Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge from the incision site
- Passing no or only small amounts of urine
- Pain, burning, urgency, frequency of urination, or persistent bleeding in the urine
- Vomiting, black or tarry stools, diarrhea, or constipation
- Abdominal pain or cramping
- Sore throat or mouth sores
- Cough, shortness of breath, or any chest pain
- Coughing up blood
- Severe headache
- Headache, confusion, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness
- Pain and/or swelling in your feet, calves, or legs
- Weight gain greater than three pounds in one day
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov
Kidney Cancer Canada http://www.kidneycancercanada.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Akbar SA, Jafri ZH, et al. Complications of renal transplantation. RadioGraphics. 2005; 25:1335-1356.
Chronic kidney disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 11, 2014. Accessed August 13, 2014.
Halloran PF. Immunosuppressive drugs for kidney transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2715-2729.
Kidney transplant. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneytransnewlease.cfm. Accessed August 13, 2014.
Kidney (renal) transplantation. American Urological Association Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=23&display=1. Updated January 2011. Accessed August 13, 2014.
11/30/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Stock PG, Barin B, et al. Outcomes of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected recipients. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(21):2004-2014.
6/2/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -